This tutorial is a step-by-step guide that covers how to build a standalone ESP32 or ESP8266 NodeMCU Web Server that controls any relay module. We’ll create an ESP32/ESP8266 Web Server that is mobile responsive and it can be accessed with any device with a browser in your local network.
A relay is an electrically operated switch and like any other switch, it that can be turned on or off, letting the current go through or not. It can be controlled with low voltages, like the 3.3V provided by the ESP GPIOs and allows us to control high voltages like 12V, 24V or mains voltage (230V in Europe and 120V in the US).
There are different relay modules with a different number of channels. You can find relay modules with one, two, four, eight and even sixteen channels. The number of channels determines the number of outputs you can control.
Get a relay module:
For an in-depth guide on how a relay module works, read:
Control Relay Modules with Multiple Channels using an ESP32/ESP8266 Web Server
With this web server code, you can control as many relays as you want via web server whether they are configured as normally opened or as normally closed. You just need to change a few lines of code to define the number of relays you want to control and the pin assignment.
To build this web server, install the ESP32/ESP8266 board add-on and the next libraries in your Arduino IDE.
Installing the ESPAsyncWebServer, AsyncTCP, and ESPAsyncTCP Libraries
In your Arduino IDE, to install the libraries go to Sketch > Include Library > Add .ZIP library… and select the library you’ve just downloaded.
After installing the required libraries, copy the following code to your Arduino IDE.
Modify the following variable to indicate whether you’re using your relays in normally open (NO) or normally closed (NC) configuration. Set the RELAY_NO variable to true for normally open os set to false for normally closed.
Define Number of Relays (Channels)
You can define the number of relays you want to control on the NUM_RELAYS variable. For demonstration purposes, we’re setting it to 5.
Define Relays Pin Assignment
In the following array variable you can define the ESP GPIOs that will control the relays.
The number of relays set on the NUM_RELAYS variable needs to match the number of GPIOs assigned in the relayGPIOs array.
Insert your network credentials in the following variables.
Wiring a Relay Module to an ESP Board
For demonstration purposes, we’re controlling 5 relay channels. Wire the ESP boards to the relay module as shown in the next schematic diagrams.
Warning: most relay projects deal with mains voltage. Misuse can result in serious injuries. If you’re not familiar with mains voltage ask someone who is to help you out. While programming the ESP or wiring your circuit make sure everything is disconnected from mains voltage. Alternatively, you can use a 12V power source to control 12V appliances.
After making the necessary changes, upload the code to your ESP. Open the Serial Monitor at a baud rate of 115200 and press the ESP RST button to get its IP address (make sure that you circuit is unplugged from mains voltage).
Open a browser in your local network and type the ESP IP address to get access to the web server. You should get something as follows with as many buttons as the number of relays you’ve defined in your code.
Now, you can use the buttons to control your relays remotely using your smartphone.
Enclosure for Safety
For a final project, make sure you place your relay module and ESP inside an enclosure to avoid any AC pins exposed.
Watch the Video
Watch the following video for a complete tutorial and live demonstration.
Using relays with the ESP is a great way to control AC household appliances remotely. You can also read our complete guides to learn more about relay modules:
This content was originally published here.